Grapes Cultivation

Prior to the beginning of a XIX-th century grapes put in a chaotic order, and only then landings began to organise equal numbers – so a plant to look after easier. Some time ago for the supporting rods were used exclusively concrete columns which now actively replace with the wooden. It is impossible to tell precisely, what for it becomes, maybe, concrete negatively influences taste of fruits, and can, at ploughing they are touched with a tractor. Since bible times in optimum height of a plant it is considered 60 sm, the top runaway divide on two branches supported by strings which fasten to columns. From history it is known that vineyards were carefully protected not only from animals, but also from thieves. On plantation perimetre enclosed with stone walls, and in the centre there was a three-metre watchtower.

Especially an important point in care of a grapevine is the irrigation. For example, on the Sinai Peninsula practised such method. At roots of plants put the big stones for which surfaces the dew formed from difference of day and night temperatures gathered. This moisture made 1/4 from a quantity of water necessary for grapes. However it is a lot of water too it is bad. Rain thunder-storms on the eve of harvesting lead watered juice that worsens quality of grapes.

As to a climate is better hot weather. Therefore in areas with a cool climate it is necessary to put early ripening varieties, for example, Shardone. And here grapes of Semijon never will ripen in cool climatic zones. It is necessary to approach to grade selection rather cautiously that the ripened fruits contained optimum balance of sugar and acid. For example, in France thermophilic Pino Nuar is put in hardly by more cool areas, therefore manufacture of the Burgundian red wines long since endures that dazzling success, a total failure. In warm regions the main task of the wine maker – not to allow to grapes to ripen too quickly, differently flavouring qualities of fruits will not have time to reach peak. Therefore some farmers reap a crop before the term in order the wine contain more percent of acid .

The main problem is the problem of fertilizers. If in the XX-th century herbicides and pesticides now there is an opinion were widely applied that the chemistry worsens taste of grapes and, accordingly, wine. Therefore use of compost and natural methods of pest control of a grapevine becomes more and more popular, besides it promotes restoration of microbiological structure of soil. ;

There is a set of subtleties of cultivation of grapes. For example, cutting or a garter of leaves which can cover clusters of grapes from the sun. Moreover, they promote formation of the damp environment round fruits that can promote mould and decay occurrence. As a result grapes badly grow ripe, and wine from it turns out sour.

Also it is necessary to pay attention to earth type. Stony, sandy and loamy soils concern to warm ground that promotes faster ripening of fruits. And clay and limy soils require good drainage system. In zones with warm environmental conditions it is possible to manage and without a drainage. Some grades of grapes are rather exacting to a ground. For example, Kaberne Sovinon gives a top yield only on the stony earth Bordo, and the grade of Shardone comfortably feels on limy soils of the French province Champagne.

In ancient times, to thank the earth for a rich crop, the wine maker dug out a hole on a plantation and squeezed out in it of a few juice of the collected fruits, thereby «allowing to the earth to enjoy wines».

How to choose Wine?

Once I have resulted the girl in fashionable wine restaurant in the USA. All was simply remarkable, the clothes on me were in the latest fashion, a smart car. But here time has come to order wine. Then it seemed to me that in this business all is simple enough. It is necessary to say only something of type “the Waiter, a bottle of your best wine”. But it has not appeared much more difficult. Wine restaurant all the same, especially in the USA…

Attempt to understand

But, short of that the fact that I at all did not know, what wine to choose for a fillet, ordered by me, and for a duck who was ordered by my ladylove, I could not even disassemble that is written in the list of wines of this American restaurant. It was simply the set of terms about which I had no concept. Earlier I considered that under names of many wines it is possible to guess at least its colour, but how it has been presented, I could not even understand white this wine or red wine, not to mention grapes or country grade in which it has been collected.

When have brought our wine, I have understood that the first time has really paid attention to a wine label. It was the double-Dutch for me. I have been assured that on a wine label the important information on fault should be specified, but I did not know where to look.

After that of a case in has made the decision that the similar should not repeat henceforth. For visiting of wine restaurant it is necessary to have at least the general concept about the data on a wine bottle. If you have come about the beautiful girl to wine restaurant of the USA to expose yourself the boor it would be desirable to nobody.

Now I know the favourite wine
Since then interest to wines became much stronger, now it not so simply to render a way impression on the lady. Let’s try make so that also you have not struck in a dirt the person on following appointment.

The label on a wine bottle contains the following data:

1. The alcohol maintenance in fault
2. A designation or area where grapes have been collected
3. Volume of a bottle
4. The name of wine
5. The manufacturer
6. Quality of wine
7. Type of wine
8. The Wine brand
9. Vintage

1. The alcohol maintenance

In the different countries various standards for a designation of quantity of alcohol in fault. In the USA the minimum maintenance of alcohol for table wines of 7 %, maximum is equal 14 %. Though on wine bottles percentage of alcohol in fault is specified, the admissible divergence is possible about 1.5 %, it is no more. And here for sherry or portveigns the alcohol maintenance varies from 17 % to 20 %.

2. A designation or area where grapes was collected.

For example as in case of wines grapes for which have been grown up in Old Light, the area, area entitles the wine have been collected. Sometimes it causes some difficulties, since those from us, who prefers wines from a New World (Australia, the Republic of South Africa, the USA or Chile), have got used to that the name wine occurs from grapes grade (Shiraz, Zinfandel) or from the vineyard name. In case the area of grapes cultivation is highly estimated by experts you can often find it on a wine label.

3. The bottle volume

Standard volume of a wine bottle which submit at wine restaurants of the USA is 750 milliliters or 1,5 litres. You can see this information on the label or at the bottom of a wine bottle.

4. The name of wine

You, probably, believe that the majority of wines have received the name thanks to district where grapes have been collected. For example, in France, Italy and Spain it indeed. Here that we observe in France:” Beaujolais “(Beaujolais),”Bordeaux”(Bordeaux) and”Champagne”(Champagne) – the is names of wines and areas. By the same principle Italian”Kjanti”(Chianti) and Spanish”Rojja”(Rioja) is named. But names to wines from these countries: the USA, the republic of South Africa, Australia, Canada and New Zealand are given a little in another way. As we spoke above, wine receives the name on a grade of grapes (vineyard). For example, Gallo of Sonoma Cabernet Sauvignon.

5. The manufacturer

In the event that you not bad understand in wines the name of the manufacturer of wine will tell to you much more, than all the rest. The is better you know with wines, the it is more than manufacturers you will know in”person”. Names of manufacturers depend on the country. In France it can be Shato (Chateau), in Bordeaux or Domejn (Domaine), in Burgundy (Burgundy). In Germany, Italy and Spain are set of estates where grapes, therefore very important exact name, since grow Manufacturers share names of districts, and quality can differ. It is especially important, if you deal with wines from Germany.

6. Quality of wine

District where grapes have been grown up and collected, similarly has the system of an estimation that can help to be defined with quality of a drink. From time to time it is underlined on a bottle but so happens not always. We take, for example, Italy where there are seven degrees of quality, beginning from Vino da Tavola and finishing Denominazione di Origine Controllata. Also, Grand Cru is a designation of best “Bordeaux” in France. Since higher class often means a better product, you can find very many quite good wines among less rating.

7. Wine type

This information never can give to you of any serious data about bottle filling. Often, you will read only “white table wine” or “dry red wine”. However it completely not necessarily specifies you a sign of quality of wine. Remember it since wines should contain not less than 75 % of one grade of grapes (as they can be and mixed) in the USA, i.e. on a wine label it is impossible to specify the grapes name. Therefore became such difficult in definition and the general names as “white wine”. For this reason it is not necessary so strongly to go in cycles in a wine version.

8. The grade of grapes

The Grade is a version of grapes of which wine, that is the special maintenance ofwine has been made. Here too there can be some difficulties since to France and Italy such information on labels do not write. Areas where in these countries can make wine of traditional grades of grapes, it “Cabernet of Savinon” (Cabernet Sauvignon) in Bordeaux and Sandzhioveze (Sangiovese) in Kjanti. As the majority of the countries do not resolve use of foreign grades of grapes in mixes in these countries of similar wine there can not be more than 15 % (25 % – for the USA).

9. Vintage

Vintage means year of vintage, instead of year of flood of wine. It is especially important at definition of quality of wine, and, of course, matters for components which mix fault of especial qualities for giving. Under laws which differ in the different states, wine to be obliged it to is made, at least, on 85 % of the grapes which have been grown up in vintage year. Other structure can be a mix of wines of different vintage years.

I perfectly understand that it can appear uneasy (only it is possible to spend for the German wines about one week) but as soon as you will be adjusted will come to a conclusion that the main thing is a good analysis.

Wine and Food – Red Wines

It is difficult enough to classify red wines on style , because in the course of time they change the taste and colour, strongly depend on quality of the collected crop, and their specific features are very difficult for foreseeing. But nevertheless it is possible to divide red dry wines into five basic groups.

Young red wines practically right after manufacturing put on the market. These wines concern to small endurance, therefore have light tone. Besides, they are acid and low alcoholic (10 – 12 %).

They are made from grapes Din, Grenash, Dolchetto, Kaberne Fran, and also other grades which wines allow to make small endurance. To them concern French Beaujolais (Beaujolais), Italian Dolcetto (Dolchetto), Bardolino (Bardolino), Valpolicella (Valpolichella), German wines made from grapes Shpetburgunder.

Submit their cooled (to 8 – 10 °C) that allows to accent their ease and fruit aroma.

These wines are ideally suited for simple dishes – sausages, stewed meat, a pizza, a spaghetti, salads and vegetables. Also they are not bad combined with fried seafood, including fish.

Red wines of an average body quite often name “silky” as they differ delicate sweetish taste with easy acid. The special piquancy to these wines is given by a bouquet containing aromas of a sweet cherry, plums, a black currant, a raspberry, and also different spices.

For their manufacture use the fruits which thin skin contains a small amount of tannins: Pino Nuar, Sanzho-veze, Grenash, Pinotazh. Representatives of this style are French red Burgundian and Bordovsky wines, Italian Brunello di Montalcino (Brunello-di-Montalchino) and Chianti Classico (Kjanti Klassiko), Barbera d’Alba, Spanish Valdepefias.

In order not to break their harmony temperature at the use should be 12 – 14 °C.

These wines perfectly approach to low-fat fried meat, the game submitted with a garnish from vegetables.

The red wines of a full body differently named tasters «powerful and energetic» as possess bright deep aroma and a considerable quantity of tannins. The alcohol maintenance reaches 12 – 14 %.

They are made of grades of grapes of Merlo, Zinfandel, Kaberne Sovi-non, by Cabernet of Fran, Shiraz. Among this style of wines the best French Bordovsky and Burgundian, Italian Barbaresco, Vagoju, Sagrantino di Montefalco (Sagrantino-di-Montefalko), South African Pinotage, Californian Zinfandel, Australian Shiraz (Shiraz).

They are recommend to submit at temperature 15 – 17 °C.

Thanks to the flavouring features these wines approach to a wide set of foods – both fish, and meat.

Silnotaninnye wines have dark red colour and coffee and even tobacco are characterised by a wide set of exotic aromas of grasses, chocolate. It is possible to name their taste tart, sweet and simultaneously sour.

Wines of this style group are made from grapes of grades of Kaberne Sovinon, Shiraz, Tempranilo, Nebbello. Among them – French Bordovsky fault, especially from area Medok, and also from northern part of a valley of Rhone, for example, Hermitage (Hermitage), the best grades of area Languedoc-Roussilon, Spanish Rioja Reserva (Rioha Rizerva), Italian Chianti Classico Riserva (Kjanti to the Classic of the Reserve), fault Cabernet-Sauvignon (Cabernet of Sovinon) from «new wine world».

The temperature of their giving should make 15 – 17 °C.

Owing to the flavouring features they perfectly approach to dishes from meat which prepare with a garnish from slightly sweetish vegetables – an onions, carrots.

Vintage wines concern the category of old wines. Degree of an old age of a drink can be defined on a red-brown deposit at the bottom of a bottle. The wine, the more softly its taste is more senior and colour is more light.

Before giving on a table wine is recommended to lead to temperature 18 °C.

To use them follows with delicate dishes, that is, with not too fat, sharp or salty. In general they can be tasted without any support, or in a combination to easy cheeses.

Wine Occurrence

I think, many will agree that it is possible to consider wine as a drink of gods, after all it is that ambrozion which is to be tasted small-small draughts, feeling unique taste of this drink and its magnificent aroma. In the seventeenth century was considered what to drink wine much more usefully, than simple water or other drinks. Beer at that time have not learnt to cook yet plainly (besides, at a total absence such making as hop, it quickly spoilt), exactly as well as to clear flowing drinking water. Wine always strengthened forces, amused soul, and that is one of its major qualities, was long stored. In general, was the tsar of everything that it is possible to drink. The first wine restaurants (then they were called a little in another way), became the most popular vacation spots. So, there has come the seventeenth century from a Christmas, and all-power fault has come to the an end: there were numerous competitors. To Europe chocolate, coffee and tea began to arrive. Known brewers have like at last a secret of manufacturing of the grain drink, and on pipes long-awaited pure water which could be applied to drink and cooking, at last, has begun to flow. The industry of wine restaurants has reeled, and having had time to begin… The First fresh idea – manufacturing and application of glass bottles – became a considerable makeweight on the wine account. Wine in glass container was stored much longer, than, as earlier, in oak flanks. Earlier various jugs and large bottles everyone there were applied to inform only a wine drink from a cellar on a table. Now application of new manufacturing techniques has flown down have made it much more strong, and manufacture is much cheaper. It is necessary to tell that simply ingenious invention at that time stoppers not deservedly is deprived today by attention from outside contemporaries. To a final analysis, the wine industry of second half of seventeenth century has typed such scope that the most known marks of wine which till now are held in respect also honour among fans as classical, were born during that nice time.

At this particular time the first echoes of creation of wine restaurants start to appear. It is connected here with what. At that time any true gentleman did not presume to ignore simply such important characteristics, as wine manufacturing, wine storage, temperature of wines and an order of giving of wine to a table. The so-called wine etiquette was formed also. True gentleman necessarily had an own wine cellar and strictly watched each bottle, aspiring to provide to it perfect conditions for storage. He also has been informed enough not to allow anybody from servants to rub off a dust with a bottle old “Shato Muton Rothschild” or to forbid the butler rapping its napkin at tasting, hiding thereby from the intrigued visitors a family tree of a bottle of wine. Especially it concerned red wine. At this gentleman vintage wines were stored in strict horizontal position at strictly certain temperature and never taken out from the wine cells up to the moment of giving to a table.

And all began so…

One Greek legend says that has opened a secret of a grapevine the shepherd by name of Estafilos whom, having gone on searches of a sheep, has found out it eating leaves of grapes. The shepherd has collected from a rod some unknown fruits, has carried these clusters to the owner Ojnosu who, in turn, has squeezed out juice of fruits. Juice all became more fragrant in due course, thus and our wine has turned out. In turn the Roman mythology believes that the first rod has been planted by god Saturn. However in Persia there is a history about an origin of a wine drink and grapes: speak, when tsar Dzhamshid had a rest in the shadow of the tent and observed training of the soldiers and soldiers something has distracted it. The big white bird choked in a mouth of a huge black snake. The Tsar has ordered to the soldiers to kill a snake immediately. One shot of a dragon has been amazed by an arrow in a head. The free white bird was pulled out from a mouth of a snake and has flown up to feet of the tsar of Persia and has dropped some kernels which have soon sprouted from a beak. The low branchy trees which have given of many fruits have grown from these kernels. Tsar Dzhamshid very much loved juice of these fruits, but once to it have brought a little sour juice, the tsar was upset and has ordered to clean it. So has passed some months . One fine slave, began to suffer strong headaches and has wished to die. Having found the bottle rejected by the tsar with the begun to ferment juice (young wine), the slave has drunk all it to the bottom. Certainly, she has lost consciousness and has overslept some days and when has woken up became more brave and more cheerful. News about wonderful healing of the slave has reached ears of the tsar, and it has proclaimed sour juice “an imperial medicine”.

Grapes for wine

Grapes concern perennial plants. His life time is subdivided into three stages. The youth begins with 5 and lasts till 10 years. The maturity – a stage of the maximum harvesting – proceeds on the average till 30 years. More often it depends on a plant grade. An old age – till 100 years and more.

The technology of cultivation of a grapevine passed from father to son until in the XIX-th century beginning there was no science about grapes cultivation – ampelografion. It synthesised and has generalised the knowledge saved up by centuries and experience of wine makers. Has answered questions where and how to put various grades of grapes, how to look after a plant, to achieve top yields when it is necessary to collect clusters in various climatic zones.

Now the grapevine as a plant is classified on following parametres:

– on a geographical arrangement:

The east;
Black Sea;
West European;

– to destination:

Table grapes use in food;
Grapes for wine manufacture;
Grapes for manufacture of cognacs, juice, concentrates;

– on quality:

For collection wines;
For vintage wines;
For ordinary wines;

– on maturing terms:

Very early maturing;
Early maturing;
Average maturing;
Later maturing;
Very later maturing;

– on colour of received wine:

Red grapes;
White grapes;

– on the most suitable regionalno-climatic arrangement.

From 5000 kinds of a grapevine known for today only 500 are suitable for winemaking and 100 – 150 – are used for industrial manufacturing of wine. Only about 50 countries of the world grow up grapes and make this noble drink. Their number includes such regions, as Europe which occupies 70 – 75 % wine market, Asia – 17 %, America – 10 – 15 %, Africa – 14 % and Ocenia – 1 – 2 %.

Each grade of grapes has the individual characteristics. For example, the Muscat gives fault flower aroma and taste, Sovinon Blan – grassy. It depends on a parity in fruits of acid and tannins. It is necessary to notice that taste of berries also depends on quantity of a moisture, a sunlight, a wind and temperature. Classical traditional taste the grapes which have been grown up only on the historical native land possess. These grades are used for a long time in winemaking and give fine wines, therefore they are called as “royal”:

– Shardone and Pino Nuar – Burgundy in France;
– Kaberne Sovinon – Bordeaux in France;
– Sira – area of Northern Rhone, France;
– Shenen Blan – a valley of Loire, France;
– Nebbolo – Piedmont, Italy;
– Sanzhoveze – Toskan, Italy;
– Risling – Mozelsky and Rhine areas of Germany.

Wine In The Middle Ages

Gradually at the majority of wine makers increased experience and knowledge that helped them to understand the wine industry better that you will not tell about wine consumers. What here wine restaurants… The Life in the Middle Ages was rough, rigid, short and melancholy. Stress removed in usual taverns, it was some kind of runaway from realities of everyday life and limitation of the estate. As marks Luebeck, “in 1476 of the wife of patricians of Luebeck went in the evening under a dense veil in wine cellars (so then named wine restaurants) to satisfy the desires, remaining thus not learnt”. Alas…

In due time the big progress in branch of manufacture of glass has helped mankind to pass gradually from wine casks to empties. On tables at wine restaurants (taverns) of that time the present glass wine bottles began to appear. At first the bottle did not shine with beauty: The unsightly muddy thick-walled vessel entered into use in the Near East and in the North Africa not later than VI century, in due course bottle was considerably it is improved thanks to diligence of glaziers of the Italian cities of Faentsy and Urbino.

Somewhere in XVII century, after the invention of a wine stopper, the bottle has reached the perfection of that time. Seamen in the north of France, for example, liked to drink wine from bottles with a long neck. It spoke also that such bottles was sometimes very convenient to fight in port taverns. I sometimes regret that at modern wine restaurants of the USA no such tradition.

Besides, it was found out what to store wine in bottles much more reliably, than in wine casks. Aroma of wine from a bottle also differs from aroma of a wine from the wood. Originally wine stoppers were filled in with wax or organic pitch which the manufacturer of wine or its owner set the seal. Certainly, simultaneously with the invention a stopper it was necessary to invent also a corkscrew.

Types of White Wine

Gevjurtstraminer (Gewtirztraminer)

The name of this grade in transfer means: «Spicy grapes from Tramina». In spite of the fact that the ancestor of manufacture of a drink from Gevjurtstraminera is the city of Tramin in northern part of Italy, the best wines are made in Alsace. Also these grapes use in Germany and Austria. Fruits of this grade contain high percent of sugar and not enough acid. Therefore wines from them turn out with the big maintenance of alcohol, moist (off-dry), with the fine, sated bouquet.

Muller-Turgau (Muller Thurgau)

This grade is cultivated basically in Germany and other regions with a cool climate – England, the north of Italy, Austria and New Zealand. Wine turns out ordinary taste or as judges speak, without strong character.

Muscat (Muscat)

These grapes have set of versions on colour of fruits, but all of them differ juiciness, sweet and the small maintenance of acid. Of this grade make the whole set of wines with a rich flower bouquet – from dry to sweet, from light to dark. However young sweet wines are most appreciated.

Pino Gri (Pinot Gris)

Pino Gri is most extended in Italy, France. and Germany where carries the name of Rulander (Rulander). In general grapes of grades of Pino have various colour of fruits, for example Pino Blan – white, Pino Mene – red, Pino Nuar – dark red, Pino Gri – livid. And colouring of berries is caused only by colour of a thin skin, pulp and juice practically always the light. Wines from grapes of Pino Gri. can be dry, semisweet and sweet, an average and full body, differ the small maintenance of acid and neutral aroma, have deeper colour, rather than other white wines. Require endurance for 10 years and more. As to drinks from Pino Gridzho (Pinot Grigio) they possess unique taste only when are young. Grapes of Pino Blan are intended for manufacture of the rigid dry wines possessing neutral aroma and taste.

Risling (Riesling)

Grapes of this grade come from the Rhine and Mozelsky valleys of Germany. Now it also is grown up in Alsace in France and in some areas of Austria. The wines received from it, as a rule, dry also differ easy both freshening taste and fruit aroma. The most refined experts consider a drink from fruits of Rislinga as the brightest and live. The Austrian wine from this grade differs from German that has smack and aroma of a lemon, instead of a peach.

Semijon (Semillon)

Grapes of this grade grow in many corners of the world, most it is extended in France and Australia. Semijon perfectly approaches for manufacture of sweet white wines as in its fruits high concentration of sugar thanks to what, the drink has honey smack contains. Also these grapes often add in other grades of wines.

Shardone (Chardannay)

This grade is widely known all over the world as it grow up practically everywhere. It is not too whimsical and quickly adapts for almost any environmental conditions, bringing besides fine crops. Depending on a climatic zone in which the rod is grown up, distinguish easy and heavy fragrant wines. The first type of a drink allows to make a cool climate of Burgundy, and the second – hot Californian and Australian weather. Feature of a grade is that wine is necessary for maintaining in special flanks from the French oak. This method makes only high-quality Shardone and champagne as cost of one such reaches flanks of 600 dollars. Manufacturers of wines resort to small cunning more cheaply – add an oak shaving or an essence for giving of necessary aroma.

Shenen Blan (Chenin Blanc)

Shenen Blan most comfortably feels in a warm climate, especially in a valley of Loire and Southern Africa where this grade carries the name Stin (Steen). It is possible to make various wines of it, but it is dry more often. In the course of time endurances this grade becomes more and more sated with aromas of green apples, a lemon, a melon, apricots and honey.

Sovinon Blan (Sauvignon Blanc)

This grade is rather whimsical, most comfortably he feels in a cool climate. For wine choose the fruits which have just reached of ripeness, the fermentation is carried out at low temperature in capacities from stainless steel. To maintain a drink practically it is not necessary. From this grade which have been grown up in a valley of Loire in France, one of the most well-known wines – Sansere is made. It differs rigid enough taste with aromas of a gooseberry, a lemon, an asparagus and grasses. In general of this grade of grapes do lungs and, as a rule, dry wines. In Bordeaux there is own technology of preparation which consists in the following. Fruits of Sovinon Blan mix with a grade of Semijon in the ratio 1:1 and maintain in oak flanks, it allows to keep the unique aroma inherent in Sovinon and to soften rigidity of wine. By manufacture sweet Bordeaux wines, for example, Sotern and Barzak, and also American, Australian and South African, add these grapes as a component that sells certain taste.

Uni Blan (Ugni Blanc)

Uni Blan, the other name Trebbjano (Trebbiano) – widely known Italian grade. Wines from it differ the big maintenance of acid, easy type, with neutral aroma, small percent of sugar, therefore can move to any dishes.

Vione (Viognier)

These grapes long time were cultivated only in northern part of a valley of Rhone in France, and only recently have appeared in the south of France and in California. The result of manufacture of wine from this grade is rather astable and unpredictable, however the best drinks are rich with flower aroma and peach taste.

Types of Red Wine

Cabernet Sovinon (Cabernet Sauvignon)

Cabernet Sovinon (Cabernet Sauvignon) it is most popular among red grades of grapes. It is grown up practically everywhere as it is not whimsical to environmental conditions. It is most extended in France, Italy, Austria, the USA, the republic of South Africa and Chile. Fruits of this grade contain a lot of tannin, therefore young wines from it tart enough. The highest value well sustained drinks till 15 years and more have, having taste and aroma of a black currant. For reception of soft grades of wines of Caberne Sovinon mix with Merlo or Cabernet of Fran, also it is possible to add Malbek and the Brevier of Berdo.

Game (Gamay)

From this grade Bozhole Novu well-known wine is traditionally made. It has deep red colour and the low maintenance of tannins. Distinguish grades which are better for drinking young, or capable to long endurance.

Merlo (Merlot)

This grade at the moment competes in popularity with Caberne Sovinon on grape grounds of Bordeaux. Merlo contains a tannin small amount, therefore wines from it possess a hollow body, deepcolour and soft plam or mint taste and aroma.
Nebbiolo (Nebbiolo)

Pino Nuar (Pinot Noir)

Pino Nuar is considered one of the most whimsical grades of a grapevine. Until recently it could grow only in Burgundy, with its not too warm, but also not too a frigid climate. However recently secrets of its cultivation have opened both in California, and in Chile, and in Australia. The most successful wines made from this grade, differ the sated bouquet of plam, cherry, date, orange and strawberry aromas. In the course of time endurances its taste becomes deeper.

Sanzhoveze (Sangiovese)

Sanzhovezemost comfortably feels in Tuscan region of Italy and in California. Wine from this grade turns out light-red colour, strongly acid, with an aroma of flowers and taste of fruit. Traditionally these grapes are used for manufacture of Kjanti.

Sira (Syrah, Shiraz)

This grade is grown up now in many regions of the world: Australia, Chile, California, Argentina, the republic of South Africa and others. But wines of a world class are made only from the grapes which have been grown up in a valley of Rhone in France, for example, Hermitage (Hermitage) and Cote-Rotie (Cat-roti). The drink turns out corpulent, dark red colour, with a range of aromas from fruit to smoked, resinous or peppered.

Tempranilo (Tempranillo)

Tempranilo – the most well-known Spanish grade of grapes. Wines from it turn out is dark-claret colour, with the small maintenance of acid and fruit aroma. They have good potential to ageing in wooden flanks.

Zinfandel (Zinfandel)

For the first time Zinfandel (Zinfandel) has started to be grown up in California. From this grade make a considerable quantity of various wines – from sweetish pink to rigid dark red with strongly pronounced berry aroma. Drinks which drink only young, and the wines demanding long-term endurance also differ.

Wine and Food General rules

Long since was considered that wine is created for food support, and then opens the better qualities. There is the certain list of grades corresponding to those or other dishes. More often fault of the various countries is better approach to their national kitchen. And, it is necessary to pay attention that certain components can strengthen or soften flavouring qualities of a drink. For example, the protein containing in walnuts, has properties to aggravate tannin taste of red grades. The same situation is and with hot dishes. To such wines is better approach saltish and fat food – fried meat, cheeses, but the use with fish and desserts is absolutely counter-indicative. Drinks a fortress 12 – 14 % of alcohol, and also sweet and sour wines are perfectly combined with sweet, and, in certain cases, the salty. As a result it is possible to draw a conclusion that wine needs to be selected similar for the taste with submitted foods. For example, wines of an easy body are intended for easy food, an average – for salty, and full – for heavy. Thus, submitting mushrooms, pick up wine with grasses aromas, well will approach white Burgundian or Sanser from area of the Top Loire. To fruit accordingly choose wines with fruit aromas. Certainly, there is enough simple approach to a choice of wine for a meal. To fish foods, dishes from game submit white dry wine, to meat – red dry, for a dessert – sweet wine.

Also it is not necessary to forget about sequence of reception of wine, that is white grades drink before red, lungs – before heavy, young – before old, and the drinks sustained in metal tubs and having fruit aromas, it is necessary to use before flank wine. However now, people are for some reason inclined to prefer one wine brand, without paying attention to an existing variety. Therefore it is necessary to notice that organs of smell and touch quickly enough get used to one and that kind of wine, and the freshness of perception is lost.